Macarthur Veterinary Group
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Feline Lower Urinary Tract Disease - FLUTD

What is Feline Lower Urinary Tract Disease (FLUTD)?

FLUTD consists of a group of conditions, many of which cause inflammation of the lower urinary tract. Affected cats frequently show signs similar to those of cystitis in humans. In some cats the formation of crystalline material in the lower urinary tract can result in obstruction to the passage of urine. This is more common in male cats, because the male urethra (the tube that carries urine from the bladder to the outside) is much narrower than in the female. Complete obstruction can cause irreversible damage to the kidneys, unless quickly treated.

There is no single cause of FLUTD, and therefore diagnostic tests are usually recommended.

Risk factors that have been shown to be significant are:


High levels of certain minerals in food can increase the chance of crystal formation in urine. The minerals magnesium and phosphorus are components of the most common crystal type - struvite. Therefore it is helpful to limit the levels of these minerals in the food. The food a cat eats also influences the acidity of its urine. Struvite crystals tend to form in more alkaline urine, and other types such as calcium oxalate in association with more acidic urine. Therefore feeding a food that results in the proper urine pH is essential to reduce crystal formation.


Lack of exercise, confinement indoors, reduced water intake, and even dirty litter trays may cause your cat to urinate less often. Low frequency of urination can play a role in encouraging the development of FLUTD.

Body Condition

Excessive weight, because of a combination of dietary and environmental factors, also predisposes towards FLUTD.


Although both sexes are equally likely to develop signs of FLUTD, urinary obstruction, because of plug formation, is more common in neutered male cats.

Recognising the signs of FLUTD

FLUTD can be uncomfortable, and, if a blockage occurs, extremely dangerous. Recognising the typical signs is critical. Sometimes even subtle changes in behaviour may indicate a serious problem. Be aware of the warning signs of FLUTD, and contact your veterinary surgeon without delay if you notice any of the following.

Signs of FLUTD

  • Abnormal urination, including b1ood in the urine, abnormal colour of urine, excessive straining to urinate, or passing urine frequently in small amounts (little and often).
  • Behavioural changes such as restlessness, listlessness, hiding away or refusal to eat.
  • Changes in the pattern of urination such as urinating indoors or in unusual places such as a shower recess.


A male cat which is not urinating freely requires immediate veterinary attention, because a life threatening urinary blockage may be present.


FLUTD Urine testBecause there are several causes of FLUTD your vet may perform a number of diagnostic tests, such as urinary pH measurement. Your veterinary surgeon can collect a urine sample, but it could be helpful if you are able to take a fresh urine sample from your cat to the surgery with you.

In some cases the urine may be sent to a laboratory for a detailed examination, including identification of any microscopic crystals present. Urine crystals can be successfully managed by feeding an appropriate food; however the specific treatment will depend on the crystal type that is present. Cases that do not respond to treatment may require further procedures such as radiography (x-rays), to identify the cause of the problem.

Management and control of cats with FLUTD

Hills Science Diet c/d Multicare Stress pet foods are specifically formulated to minimise dietary risk factors that influence the development of struvite-related FLUTD. A healthy bladder starts with the right balance of vital nutrients. Excess minerals can encourage the formation of crystals in the urine, which may lead to the creation of bladder stones. They can cause discomfort and lead to more serious problems that require the care of a veterinarian. Stress in the home has been shown to negatively impact bladder health as well.
Nutritionists & veterinarians developed Hills Prescription Diet™ c/d™ Multicare Feline Stress clinical nutrition specially formulated to support your cats urinary health while also helping to manage stress. In fact, c/d Multicare is clinically tested nutrition to lower the recurrence of most common urinary signs by 89%.

HIlls Science Diet c/d Mutlicare Stress (wet or dry), are designed to be fed, under veterinary supervision, to cats suffering from FLUTD, and to help prevent its recurrence. We recommend a veterinary check up every six months while on these therapeutic diets

Key Benefits

How It Works:
  •  Promotes desirable urine pH levels
  •  Enriched with antioxidants, potassium citrate & Omega-3 fatty acids
  •  Controlled levels of magnesium, calcium, & phosphorus

How It Helps:

  • Dissolves struvite stones in as little as 7 days (Average 28 days)
  • Reduces the risk of struvite & calcium oxalate stones
  • Recommended for lifelong feeding of adult cats
  • Ingredients to help manage stress

Owner's checklist

  • Feed only the food recommended by your vet
  • Do not give any extra treats, food scraps, bones or vitamin supplements
  • Provide lots of clean fresh water at all times
  • Encourage exercise whenever possible
  • Keep the litter tray clean and fresh
  • Once a cat has suffered from FLUTD, a food specifically designed to prevent crystal formation should be fed for life to prevent recurrence

Feeding Guide

All Hills Science diet foods are extremely palatable and are eagerly accepted by most cats. However, when suffering from FLUTD your cat may have a reduced appetite or be less willing to eat. If your cat does resist a change of food, the following tips may help:

Introduce the new food gradually - mix it with your cat's usual food, adding more of it each day until you have completed the change-over.

Warm canned food to body temperature - but no hotter - before feeding.

If you pet refuses to eat for more than 48 hours, discuss the problem with your vet.

Remember, Hills Science Diet offers a palatability guarantee, if after trying the food your cat will not accept it, we will reimburse the purchase price.

If you wish to discuss your cat’s condition personally with one of our vets, simply call one of our clinics to make an appointment.